There are different types and subtypes of nose surgery (เสริม ดั้ง which is the term in Thai). These are techniques that, alone or combined, are chosen to meet the needs of each patient.
Aesthetic rhinoplasty is the type of surgery in the most sought nose. Depending on the surgical objective, it is divided into several subtypes. Are they:
- reduction rhinoplasty, performed when there is a need to reduce some aspect of the nose (generally, the excess of bone and cartilaginous tissues that form the hump);
- augmentation rhinoplasty, performed when it is necessary to increase some aspect of the nose to improve facial proportion (generally, when the nasal structure has some sag or in very straight male profiles);
- columella rhinoplasty, performed when it is necessary to change the aperture that divides the nostrils (usually in patients with retracted columella);
- rhinoplasty to lift the nasal tip, performed when the tip of the nose is projected downward (usually in hooked noses, which have the tips pointing downwards, and Caucasian noses, which have little protruding dorsum).
Functional rhinoplasty is the type of surgery performed on the nose. It allows correcting the esthetic part (such as reducing the nose) and the functional changes in the nasal structures linked to respiratory capacity. Due to the large number of procedures performed, among the subtypes of functional rhinoplasties, the following stand out:
- rhino septoplasty performed when, in addition to aesthetic improvements, it is necessary to correct the deviated septum;
- Rhinoplasty is associated with correction of turbinate hypertrophy (also called nasal concha or spongy meat), performed when necessary to facilitate the passage of air and treat continuous nasal obstruction.
The ethnic rhinoplasty is performed to change ethnic traits considered by the patient as too striking – seeking a more harmonious look but without destroying his roots. For example, enlarged nasal wings, absence of dorsum, tips that are too projected downwards, among other cases.
Posttraumatic Or Reconstructive Rhinoplasty
Posttraumatic reconstructive rhinoplasty is made in patients who have suffered an injury that affected the shape of nasal function. It can also treat aesthetic and functional deformities resulting from congenital malformations, such as cleft lip.
In this technique, it is often necessary to use skin or cartilage grafts. They are usually extracted from the patient’s own body to prevent rejection. When this is not possible, a synthetic graft can be used.
Secondary Or Revisional Rhinoplasty
Secondary rhinoplasty or revisional is used in patients who have already undergone the previous rhinoplasty (with at least 01 years difference). These are cases in which the respiratory capacity was lower than expected or the aesthetic result left something to be desired, whether due to medical malpractice, postoperative carelessness, or occasional accidents.
When it comes to a second intervention, the procedure is much more complex. Once operated, the nasal structure may have insufficient cartilage, fibrous tissue, and thick scars. These factors make surgery difficult and often require autogenous cartilage grafts usually extracted from the patient’s ribs or ears.